Macrophage-secreted factors induce adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance

Paska A. Permana, Christopher Menge, Peter D. Reaven

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

247 Scopus citations


Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue increases with obesity, a condition associated with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. We investigated the direct effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance. 3T3-L1 adipocytes incubated with media conditioned by RAW264.7 macrophages (RAW-CM) showed dramatically increased transcription of several inflammation-related genes, greater nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity, and enhanced binding of U937 monocytes. All of these effects were prevented by co-incubation with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, an NF-κB inhibitor. Adipocytes incubated with RAW-CM also released more non-esterified fatty acids and this increased lipolysis was not suppressed by insulin. In addition, RAW-CM treatment decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that macrophage-secreted factors induce inflammatory responses and reduce insulin responsiveness in adipocytes. These effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocytes may contribute significantly to the systemic inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)507-514
Number of pages8
JournalBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 10 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Adipocyte
  • Inflammation
  • Insulin resistance
  • Macrophage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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