LKIF core: Principled ontology development for the legal domain

Rinke Hoekstra, Joost Breuker, Marcello Di Bello, Alexander Boer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

61 Scopus citations


In this paper we describe a legal core ontology that is part of the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format: a knowledge representation formalism that enables the translation of legal knowledge bases written in different representation formats and formalisms. A legal (core) ontology can play an important role in the translation of existing legal knowledge bases to other representation formats, in particular as the basis for articulate knowledge serving. This requires that the ontology has a firm grounding in commonsense and is developed in a principled manner. We describe the theory and methodology underlying the LKIF core ontology, compare it with other ontologies, introduce the concepts it defines, and discuss its use in the formalisation of an EU directive.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationLaw, Ontologies and the Semantic Web
PublisherIOS Press
Number of pages32
ISBN (Print)9781586039424
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameFrontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications
ISSN (Print)0922-6389


  • Common sense
  • Framework
  • Knowledge representation
  • LKIF
  • Legal concept
  • Legal ontology
  • Methodology
  • Ontological engineering
  • Ontology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence


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