Learners' exploratory behavior within MetaTutor

Amy Witherspoon, Roger Azevedo, Zhiqiang Cai

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Scopus citations


This study investigated the navigation patterns of 56 learners within a hypermedia learning environment, MetaTutor. Using K-Means cluster analysis, four types of navigational profiles were created. One cluster including participants who navigated primarily linearly through the learning environment, one showed high levels of non-linear progression, one included participants who opened the images very frequently, and the last cluster had a balance of all the navigational variables included in the analysis. Data from the learning measures used indicated that the balanced cluster and the cluster which opened the image frequently had the highest learning outcomes. Implications for the design of adaptive hypermedia learning systems are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationFrontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications
PublisherIOS Press
Number of pages3
ISBN (Print)9781607500285
StatePublished - Jan 1 2009

Publication series

NameFrontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications
ISSN (Print)0922-6389


  • Adaptive hypermedia
  • Exploration
  • Learner navigation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence


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