Investigations of the tin-antimony-oxygen system by high-resolution electron microscopy

David J. Smith, L. A. Bursill, Frank J. Berry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


A range of tin-antimony oxides, prepared by the calcination of precipitates, were examined by high-resolution electron microscopy. Products formed at 600°C contain small crystals of a rutile-type material and, depending on antimony concentration, varying amounts of disordered and/or amorphous phases. The observations are consistent with a resistivity to bulk phase equilibrium under conditions of low temperature and high antimony concentrations. Heating of the tin-antimony oxides to 1000°C for prolonged periods is accompanied by an increase in the crystallinity and particle size of the rutile-type material as a result of the thermally induced aggregation of tin(IV) oxide units. The observations are consistent with limited antimony incorporation in the bulk tin(IV) oxide lattice and a migration of antimony to surface sites. There was no evidence for any discrete, readily identifiable, antimony oxide phases, although a nonrutile-type material was observed at higher antimony concentration. The rutile-type phases often contained planar faults which were identified in some instances as twin boundaries; the possibility that these might provide a means of accommodating antimony within the tin oxide lattice is briefly considered. The relationship between our observations and the information available from other techniques is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)326-336
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Solid State Chemistry
Issue number3
StatePublished - Oct 1982
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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