Internal Model Control: Pid Controller Design

Daniel E. Rivera, Manfred Morarl, Sigurd Skogestad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1367 Scopus citations


For a large number of single input-single output (SISO) models typically used In the process industries, the Internal Model Control (IMC) design procedure Is shown to lead to PID controllers, occasionally augmented with a first-order lag. These PID controllers have as their only tuning parameter the closed-loop time constant or, equivalently, the closed-loop bandwidth. On-line adjustments are therefore much simpler than for general PID controllers. As a special case, PI- and PID-tuning rules for systems modeled by a first-order lag with dead time are derived analytically. The superiority of these rules In terms of both closed-loop performance and robustness is demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)252-265
Number of pages14
JournalIndustrial and Engineering Chemistry Process Design and Development
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1986
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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