Interactions between DRD4 and developmentally specific environments in alcohol-dependence symptoms

Marie D. Carlson, K. Paige Harden, Natalie Kretsch, William Corbin, Kim Fromme

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Social experiences may moderate genetic influences on alcohol dependence (AD) symptoms. Consistent with this hypothesis, Park, Sher, Todorov, and Heath (2011) previously reported interactions between the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and developmentally specific environments in the etiology of AD symptoms during emerging and young adulthood. Using a longitudinal cohort of n = 367 White participants followed from ages 18 to 27 years, we examine a series of similar interactions between DRD4 and developmentally sensitive contexts including childhood adversity and work and family roles. In contrast to previous results, we observed no significant interactions between DRD4 and childhood adversity. Overall, results further highlight the need for longitudinal studies of Gene X Environment interaction in the behavioral sciences and the difficulty of identifying candidate Gene X Environment interaction effects that are consistent across studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1043-1049
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Abnormal Psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 1 2015


  • Alcohol dependence
  • College
  • DRD4
  • Gene X environment interaction
  • Longitudinal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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