Intake of water and beverages of children and adolescents in 13 countries

I. Guelinckx, I. Iglesia, J. H. Bottin, P. De Miguel-Etayo, E. M. González-Gil, J. Salas-Salvadó, S. A. Kavouras, J. Gandy, H. Martinez, S. Bardosono, M. Abdollahi, E. Nasseri, A. Jarosz, G. Ma, E. Carmuega, I. Thiébaut, Luis A. Moreno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

77 Scopus citations


Purpose: To describe the intake of water and all other beverages in children and adolescents in 13 countries of three continents. Methods: Data of 3611 children (4–9 years) and 8109 adolescents (10–17 years) were retrieved from 13 cross-sectional surveys (47 % males). In three countries, stratified cluster sampling design was applied to randomly recruit schools classes. A quota method was applied in the other countries to randomly recruit participants. Details on the intake of all fluid types were obtained with a fluid-specific record over 7 consecutive days. Results: In the total sample, the highest mean intakes were observed for water (738 ± 567 mL/day), followed by milk (212 ± 209 mL/day), regular soft beverages (RSB) (168 ± 290 mL/day) and juices (128 ± 228 mL/day). Patterns characterized by a high contribution of water, RSB or hot beverages to total fluid intake were identified among the countries with close geographical location. Adolescents had a significantly lower milk intake and higher intake of RSB and hot beverages than children in most countries. The most consistent gender difference observed was that in both age groups males reported a significantly higher RSB consumption than females. Conclusion: On average, water was the fluid consumed in the largest volume by children and adolescents, but the intake of the different fluid types varied substantially between countries. Since the RSB intake was as large, or even larger, than water intake in some countries, undertaking actions to improve fluid intake habits of children and adolescents are warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)69-79
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
StatePublished - Jun 19 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Adolescents
  • Beverages
  • Children
  • Fluid intake
  • Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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