A series of pyrite thin films were deposited in-situ in a monolayer-by-monolayer fashion using sequential evaporation of iron under high vacuum, followed by sulfidation at a sulfur pressure of 133 Pa, as a function of substrate temperature. The stoichiometry, crystallinity, topographic smoothness, and phase purity of the deposited pyrite thin films improve with increasing substrate temperature up to 420 °C, the highest temperature studied. Characterization of the films deposited at 420 °C using selected-area precession electron diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy, and conventional X-ray diffraction indicated that the pyrite layer is phase pure, with no evidence of a secondary marcasite phase, and grew in columnar grains with a preferential (100) orientation on the (100) silicon substrates. This novel sequential evaporation technique has the potential to make useful low-cost semiconducting pyrite materials for large-area electronic applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)49-55
Number of pages7
JournalThin Solid Films
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Electronic material
  • Large area deposits
  • Photovoltaic material
  • Physical vapor deposition
  • Semiconducting iron pyrite
  • Sequential vapor deposition
  • Thin film growth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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