Industrialization and national development in the british isles

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


This article examines the relationship between industrialization and regional inequality in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland, from 1851 to 1961. Data on several indicators of economic and social development have been collected by county units from published government statistics. Whereas industrialization is often thought to contribute to national development through the gradual effacement of regional inequality, no such pattern is evident in this case study. On the contrary, the structural position of the Celtic fringe did not improve as a consequence of long-term industrialization in Britain. The Celtic lands within the British Isles have instead undergone a type of dependent development similar to that described among societies of the Third World. The spatial diffusion of industrialization has been sharply constrained in the Celtic territories, resulting in economic and social dualism. Celtic counties have consistently had lower per capita incomes than comparably industrialized counties within England. It is suggested that the historically persistent disadvantages of these regions may in part be due to the existence of racial stereotypes of Celtic culture which have been institutionalized within England.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMeasuring Development
Subtitle of host publicationThe Role and Adequacy of Development Indicators
PublisherTaylor and Francis
Number of pages27
ISBN (Electronic)9781317845485
ISBN (Print)9780714629674
StatePublished - Oct 24 2018
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Arts and Humanities
  • General Economics, Econometrics and Finance
  • General Business, Management and Accounting


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