In Silico Investigations of Multi-Drug Adaptive Therapy Protocols

Daniel S. Thomas, Luis H. Cisneros, Alexander R.A. Anderson, Carlo C. Maley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The standard of care for cancer patients aims to eradicate the tumor by killing the maximum number of cancer cells using the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of a drug. MTD causes significant toxicity and selects for resistant cells, eventually making the tumor refractory to treatment. Adaptive therapy aims to maximize time to progression (TTP), by maintaining sensitive cells to compete with resistant cells. We explored both dose modulation (DM) protocols and fixed dose (FD) interspersed with drug holiday protocols. In contrast to previous single drug protocols, we explored the determinants of success of two-drug adaptive therapy protocols, using an agent-based model. In almost all cases, DM protocols (but not FD protocols) increased TTP relative to MTD. DM protocols worked well when there was more competition, with a higher cost of resistance, greater cell turnover, and when crowded proliferating cells could replace their neighbors. The amount that the drug dose was changed, mattered less. The more sensitive the protocol was to tumor burden changes, the better. In general, protocols that used as little drug as possible, worked best. Preclinical experiments should test these predictions, especially dose modulation protocols, with the goal of generating successful clinical trials for greater cancer control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2699
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 1 2022


  • adaptive therapy
  • agent-based model
  • cancer
  • dose modulation
  • drug resistance
  • evolution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


Dive into the research topics of 'In Silico Investigations of Multi-Drug Adaptive Therapy Protocols'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this