Improved thrombogenicity on oxygen etched Ti6Al4V surfaces

Nicholas A. Riedel, Barbara S. Smith, John D. Williams, Ketul C. Popat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Thrombus formation on blood contacting biomaterials continues to be a key factor in initiating a critical mode of failure in implantable devices, requiring immediate attention. In the interest of evaluating a solution for one of the most widely used biomaterials, titanium and its alloys, this study focuses on the use of a novel surface oxidation treatment to improve the blood compatibility. This study examines the possibility of using oblique angle ion etching to produce a high quality oxide layer that enhances blood compatibility on medical grade titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of these oxygen-rich surfaces confirmed the presence of TiO 2 peaks and also indicated increased surface oxidation as well as a reduction in surface defects. After 2 h of contact with whole human plasma, the oxygen etched substrates demonstrated a reduction in both platelet adhesion and activation as compared to bare titanium substrates. The whole blood clotting behavior was evaluated for up to 45 min, showing a significant decrease in clot formation on oxygen etched substrates. Finally, a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) total protein assay and XPS were used to evaluate the degree of key blood serum protein (fibrinogen, albumin, immunoglobulin G) adsorption on the substrates. The results showed similar protein levels for both the oxygen etched and control substrates. These results indicate that oblique angle oxygen etching may be a promising method to increase the thrombogenicity of Ti6Al4V.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1196-1203
Number of pages8
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering C
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 1 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Blood
  • Hemocompatibility
  • Implant
  • Oxygen ion etching
  • Titanium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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