Impact of overmanning on mechanical and sheet metal labor productivity

Awad S. Hanna, Chul Ki Chang, Jeffery A. Lackney, Kenneth T. Sullivan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


This paper details the impacts of overmanning on labor productivity for labor-intensive trades, namely mechanical and sheet metal contractors. Overmanning, as used in the following research, is defined as an increase of the peak number of workers of the same trade over the actual average manpower used throughout the project. The paper begins by reviewing literature on the effects of overmanning on labor productivity. Via a survey to various contractors, data were collected from 54 mechanical and sheet metal projects located across the United States. Various statistical analysis techniques are then performed to determine quantitative relationship between overmanning and labor productivity. These techniques include the stepwise method, T-test, P -value tests, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis. The results indicate a 0-41% loss of productivity depending on the level of overmanning and the peak project manpower. Cross-validation is performed to validate the final model. Finally, a case study is provided to demonstrate the application of the model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)22-28
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Construction Engineering and Management
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Construction management
  • Labor
  • Mechanical systems
  • Metals
  • Productivity
  • Scheduling
  • Sheets

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Industrial relations
  • Strategy and Management


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