Hybridization and stratification of nuclear genetic variation in Macaca mulatta and M. fascicularis

Sree Kanthaswamy, Jessica Satkoski, Debra George, Alexander Kou, Bethany Joy Alise Erickson, David Glenn Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Scopus citations


We used genotypes for 13 short tandem repeats (STRs) to assess the genetic diversity within and differentiation among populations of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from mainland Asia and long-tailed macaques (M. fascicularis) from mainland and insular Southeast Asia. The subjects were either recently captured in the wild or derived from wild-caught founders maintained in captivity for biomedical research. A large number of alleles are shared between the 2 macaque species but a significant genetic division between them persists. The distinction is more clear-cut among populations that are not, or are unlikely to have recently been, geographically contiguous. Our results suggest there has been significant interspecific nuclear gene flow between rhesus macaques and long-tailed macaques on the mainland. Comparisons of mainland and island populations of long-tailed macaques reflect marked genetic subdivisions due to barriers to migration. Geographic isolation has restricted gene flow, allowing island populations to become subdivided and genetically differentiated. Indonesian long-tailed macaques show evidence of long-term separation and genetic isolation from the mainland populations, whereas long-tailed macaques from the Philippines and Mauritius both display evidence of founder effects and subsequent isolation, with the impact from genetic drift being more profound in the latter.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1295-1311
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Primatology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Gene flow
  • Genetic structure
  • Hybridization
  • Introgression
  • Microsatellites

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Animal Science and Zoology


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