Human papillomavirus vaccine administration behaviors and influences among Arizona pharmacists and pharmacy interns

Alexis Koskan, Maricarmen Vizcaino, Stephanie A. Brennhofer, Chong D. Lee, Anthony J. Roberto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


This study assessed 27 Arizona community pharmacists’ and pharmacy interns’ human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine administration behaviors and influences. We recruited community pharmacists and pharmacy interns from a statewide pharmacy conference to complete a 40-item cross-sectional survey. Informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, the survey assessed pharmacists’ HPV vaccine-related behaviors, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control to vaccinate against HPV. We analyzed all data using descriptive statistics and correlations. Overall, most pharmacists held positive attitudes about the HPV vaccine. However, the majority rarely administered the HPV vaccine. Intentions to vaccinate and subjective norms positively correlated with vaccine administration behavior. Pharmacists’ positive attitudes about the vaccine, subjective norm to vaccinate, and behavioral control or self-efficacy to recommend the vaccine impacted their intentions to vaccinate against HPV. Most surveyed pharmacists believed that the most substantial HPV vaccine administration barriers include parental consent and parental stigma against the vaccine. The most common pharmacy-related barrier was the lack of a tracking and reminder system to encourage patients to return for additional HPV vaccine doses. This work highlights the need to increase public awareness that pharmacists can administer vaccines to adolescents. Study authors recommend offering communication training to increase pharmacists’ perceived behavioral control to recommend the HPV vaccine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3090-3095
Number of pages6
JournalHuman Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2021


  • HPV vaccines
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • adolescent vaccines
  • alternative vaccination settings
  • pharmacies
  • pharmacists
  • pharmacy practice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology


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