How many trip requests could we support? An activity-travel based vehicle scheduling approach

Monirehalsadat Mahmoudi, Lu (Carol) Tong, Venu M. Garikapati, Ram M. Pendyala, Xuesong Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


In a world of ever-changing travel behavior and ever-increasing modal options, is vital to have integrated models that could capture the interactions between supply and demand layers of travel. Addressing this need, we propose three different versions of network representation and mathematical models for the activity-based vehicle routing problem to connect activity-travel graphs of passengers (demand layer) to spatio-temporal networks of vehicles (supply layer). Versions I and II are arc-based, while version III is path-based. In version I, we introduce the concept of activity-travel graphs for passengers. For vehicles, we construct space–time networks and add a new dimension, called “under-service state”, to track the execution status of trip requests at any location and time. In version II, we reduce the complexity of the network structure by eliminating the state dimension and some other modifications in the structure of the passengers’ and vehicles’ network. Although both versions can capture various behavioral constraints of the activity-based vehicle routing problem (e.g., mandatory and optimal activities, duration of activities, chain of activities, preferred starting and ending times of activities), due to the high level of complexity of the network structure, both versions can only solve small-sized problems. To tackle the computational complexity, we propose a path-based network representation in version III, and to make a balance between the disutility of passengers and vehicles, we present a tolled user equilibrium problem. Mathematical models are coded in C and GAMS and implemented on real-world Phoenix regional transportation network with more than 39 million trip requests, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed solution for the original and restricted master problems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103222
JournalTransportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
StatePublished - Jul 2021


  • Activity-based vehicle routing problem
  • Activity-travel graphs
  • Column generation
  • Space–time networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transportation
  • Automotive Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Management Science and Operations Research


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