H. N. Martin and W. K. brooks: Exemplars for American biology?

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The Johns Hopkins University offered the first modern, American, research-oriented programin biology when it opened in 1876. The program included both physiological and morphological work, so that students could choose either for their advanced degrees. Physiologists studied with Henry Newell Martin, morphologists with William Keith Brooks. Yet students took courses in both areas, and the unique exposure to two lines of research and to two very different sorts of teachers made the Johns Hopkins program exceptional. This paper outlines the dual character of biology at Hopkins, and the particular contributions of both Martin and Brooks. It also argues that the impact of that unique dual offering on four of the more famous students, E. B. Wilson, T. H. Morgan, E. G. Conklin, and R. G. Harrison, strongly influenced the successful and progressive program of research that each chose.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)773-783
Number of pages11
JournalIntegrative and comparative biology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1987

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Plant Science


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