Growth of Cu(In, Ga)(S, Se)2 films: Unravelling the mysteries by in-situ X-ray imaging

Bradley West, Michael Stuckelberger, Lei Chen, Robert Lovelett, Barry Lai, Jorg Maser, William Shafarman, Mariana Bertoni

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

5 Scopus citations


In-situ investigations of Cu(In, Ga)(S, Se)2 (CIGS) absorber layers during growth have the potential to provide insight into the origin behind elemental segregation and defect formation at grain boundaries and in grain cores. Our study focuses on CIGS films grown by an industrially relevant precursor reaction process. An in-situ stage developed for these synchrotron studies is used to image the growth of CIGS layers with nanoscale resolution. Utilizing synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence, we are able to rapidly monitor changes in elemental distribution and particle diffusion, with better than 200 nm spatial resolution throughout the 25 minute process. In this work, we highlight some challenges associated with this type of measurements and discuss solutions identified to overcome them.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2016 IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2016
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9781509027248
StatePublished - Nov 18 2016
Event43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2016 - Portland, United States
Duration: Jun 5 2016Jun 10 2016

Publication series

NameConference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference
ISSN (Print)0160-8371


Other43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2016
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • CIGS
  • XRF
  • growth
  • in-situ
  • synchrotron

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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