GRAS-microparticle microarrays identify dendritic cell tolerogenic marker-inducing formulations

Matthew R. Carstens, Clive H. Wasserfall, Abhinav P. Acharya, Jamal Lewis, Nikunj Agrawal, Kevin Koenders, Evelyn Bracho-Sanchez, Benjamin G. Keselowsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Microarrays, miniaturized platforms used for high-content studies, provide potential advantages over traditionalin vitroinvestigation in terms of time, cost, and parallel analyses. Recently, microarrays have been leveraged to investigate immune cell biology by providing a platform with which to systematically investigate the effects of various agents on a wide variety of cellular processes, including those giving rise to immune regulation for application toward curtailing autoimmunity. A specific embodiment incorporates dendritic cells cultured on microarrays containing biodegradable microparticles. Such an approach allows immune cell and microparticle co-localization and release of compounds on small, isolated populations of cells, enabling a quick, convenient method to quantify a variety of cellular responses in parallel. In this study, the microparticle microarray platform was utilized to investigate a small library of sixteen generally regarded as safe (GRAS) compounds (ascorbic acid, aspirin, capsaicin, celastrol, curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, ergosterol, hemin, hydrocortisone, indomethacin, menadione, naproxen, resveratrol, retinoic acid, α-tocopherol, vitamin D3) for their ability to induce suppressive phenotypes in murine dendritic cells. Two complementary tolerogenic index ranking systems were proposed to summarize dendritic cell responses and suggested several lead compounds (celastrol, ergosterol, vitamin D3) and two secondary compounds (hemin, capsaicin), which warrant further investigation for applications toward suppression and tolerance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3598-3613
Number of pages16
JournalLab on a Chip
Issue number18
StatePublished - Sep 21 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Biochemistry
  • General Chemistry
  • Biomedical Engineering


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