The evolution of GIS-T is characterized in three stages: the map view, the navigational view, and the behavioral view. The static nature of the map view favors applications related to inventory and description, and raises difficult questions of accuracy and interoperability. The navigational view adds concerns for connectivity and planarity, and the storage of time-dependent attributes. Navigation also raises issues of representation related to scale, including the need for lane-level connectivity. The behavioral view stems from the work of Hagerstrand, treating transportation events as dynamic and occurring within the largely static transportation space. Appropriate representations for the behavioral view have still to be worked out. In all three cases the legacies of prior technologies and perspectives are still evident. The paper presents a series of research challenges, dealing with standards, representation, unambiguous communication, economic models, response to new technologies, and application of knowledge gained from GIS-T and ITS research to other fields.
- Geographic information system
- Spatial behavior
- Spatial database
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Information Systems
- Geography, Planning and Development