Geometrical Scale Modeling of Gain and Echo Area: Simulations, Measurements and Comparisons

Constantine Balanis, Kaiyue Zhang, Craig R. Birtcher

Research output: Contribution to specialist publicationArticle

2 Scopus citations


Geometrical scale modeling is often necessary to perform measurements of parameters and figures-of-merit of antennas and radar targets with large physical dimensions that cannot be accommodated in indoor and controlled experimental facilities. The measured and simulated parameters and figures-of-merit of the scaled-models can then be translated to represent, if transformed properly, those of the full-scale models. In this paper, the basic theory is summarized which relates the gain and the echo area (RCS) of scaled models to those of their full-scale counterparts. Simulations and measurements are performed on scaled models, for both gain and RCS, and compared with those of full-scale models to verify the geometrical scaling. For the gain, a quarter-wavelength monopole on a scaled helicopter airframe, and for the RCS, a flat plate of complex configuration, are considered for simulations, measurements and comparisons. A very good agreement has been obtained for both gain and RCS between both sets of data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Number of pages4
Specialist publicationApplied Computational Electromagnetics Society Newsletter
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018


  • Antenna
  • Gain
  • Measurement
  • Radar cross section
  • Scale model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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