Formulation and characterization of radio-opaque conjugated in situ gelling materials

Brandon Blakely, Bae Hoon Lee, Celeste Riley, Ryan McLemore, Chandrashekhar P. Pathak, Brent Vernon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


X-ray visibility is an integral design component of in situ gelling embolization systems for neurovascular treatment. The goals of this project included the synthesis and characterization of a unique intrinsically radio-opaque in situ gelling material for neurovascular embolization. The gels formed using Michael-Type Addition between pentaerythritol tetrakis 3-mercaptopropionate (QT) thiols and poly(propylene glycol) diacrylate (PPODA) with the addition of the new material Iodobenzoyl poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate (IPEGA), a radio-opaque agent, synthesized successfully as confirmed with 1H NMR. The PPODA and IPEGA were mixed using a syringe coupler with QT and buffer at pH 11 for 90 seconds. Gel mixes were weighed to provide equal molar thiols and acrylate groups, changing the present acrylate-bearing compounds wt % ratios from 100 PPODA: 0 IPEGA, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 0:100. Formulations with 10% and above of IPEGA were X-ray visible. Rheology showed that increasing the amount of IPEGA decreased the storage. Kinetic FT-IR studies indicate that the amphiphilic nature of the PEG backbone increased the reaction rate of the phase segregated reactants. Second order reaction constant modeling showed a change in initial reaction rate from 0.0029 to 0.0187 (M sec)-1 from the 10% to 50% IPEGA formulations respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9-17
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 2010


  • Embolization
  • FTIR
  • Hydrogel
  • Phase separated polymer
  • Viscoelastic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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