Formation pathways for MgO·Al2O3 inclusions in iron melt

Yuanyou Xiao, Guocheng Wang, Hong Lei, Seetharaman Sridhar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


The crystallization of inclusions plays a decisive role in determining the structure, properties and size distribution of inclusions in steel. MgO·Al2O3 (MA) spinel is one of the most common inclusions having great influence on steel performance. Understanding the crystallization pathways of MA from molten steel is important to control their behaviors. Based on the thermodynamic properties of metastable phases of MA calculated by first principle prior to critical nucleus formation, the present work suggests that there are four possible pathways for MA inclusions nucleation from molten iron. According to the four nucleation pathways, the reaction among [Mg], [Al] and [O] could be the most probable pathway leading to MA inclusion formation, while Al2O3 reacting with MgO is almost impossible pathway for MA inclusion formation. The size of MA inclusions is dominated by the formation pathways, which have a close relationship with the adding ways of deoxidizer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number152243
JournalJournal of Alloys and Compounds
StatePublished - Jan 15 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • First principle
  • MgO·AlO inclusions
  • Nucleation
  • Pathway
  • Size distribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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