Fluctuations in Energy in Completely Open Small Systems

Terrell L. Hill, Ralph Chamberlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


General equations are derived for fluctuations in energy in small completely open μ, p, T and μ, T or μ1, μ2, T (incompressible) systems. Four examples are considered. As expected, the fluctuations are unusually large because there are no restraints on the size of the system. Also, fluctuations in N and V or in N1 and N2 contribute indirectly to the fluctuations in E.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)609-613
Number of pages5
JournalNano Letters
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering


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