Factors Associated With Prevalence and Treatment of Primary Biliary Cholangitis in United States Health Systems

FOLD Investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


Background & Aims: Reported prevalence of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) varies widely. Demographic features and treatment patterns are not well characterized in the United States (US). We analyzed data from the Fibrotic Liver Disease (FOLD) Consortium, drawn from 11 geographically diverse health systems, to investigate epidemiologic factors and treatment of PBC in the US. Methods: We developed a validated electronic health record-based classification model to identify patients with PBC in the FOLD database from 2003 through 2014. We used multivariable modeling to assess the effects of factors associated with PBC prevalence and treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Results: We identified 4241 PBC cases among over 14.5 million patients in FOLD health systems; median follow-up was 5 years. Accuracy of the classification model was excellent, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 93%, 94% sensitivity, and 87% specificity. The average patient age at diagnosis was 60 years; 21% were Hispanic, 8% were African American, and 7% were Asian American/American Indian/Pacific Islander. Half of the cohort (49%) had elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, and overall, 70% were treated with UDCA. The estimated 12-year prevalence of PBC was 29.3 per 100,000 persons. Adjusted prevalence values were highest among women (42.8 per 100,000), White patients (29.6 per 100,000), and patients 60–70 years old (44.7 per 100,000). Prevalence was significantly lower among men and African Americans (10.7 and 19.7 per 100,000, respectively) than women and whites; men and African Americans were also less likely to receive UDCA treatment (odds ratios, 0.6 and 0.5, respectively; P <.05). Conclusions: In an analysis of a large cohort of patients with PBC receiving routine clinical care, we observed significant differences in PBC prevalence and treatment by gender, race, and age.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1333-1341.e6
JournalClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2018


  • Autoimmune Disease
  • Classification and Regression Trees
  • Electronic Health Records
  • Gender
  • Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
  • Racial Disparities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology


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