Factor Structure of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

Andrew J. Supple, Jinni Su, Scott W. Plunkett, Gary W. Peterson, Kevin R. Bush

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations


This study evaluated the factor structure of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) with a diverse sample of 1,248 European American, Latino, Armenian, and Iranian adolescents. Adolescents completed the 10-item RSES during school as part of a larger study on parental influences and academic outcomes. Findings suggested that method effects in the RSES are more strongly associated with negatively worded items across three diverse groups but also more pronounced among ethnic minority adolescents. Findings also suggested that accounting for method effects is necessary to avoid biased conclusions regarding cultural differences in self-esteem and how predictors are related to the RSES. Moreover, the two RSES factors (positive self-esteem and negative self-esteem) were differentially predicted by parenting behaviors and academic motivation. Substantive and methodological implications of these findings for cross-cultural research on adolescent self-esteem are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)748-764
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Rosenberg
  • bidimensional
  • construct validity
  • cross-cultural validity
  • self-esteem
  • two-factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Cultural Studies
  • Anthropology


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