Fabrication of Ge:Ga Hyperdoped Materials and Devices Using CMOS-Compatible Ga and Ge Hydride Chemistries

Chi Xu, Patrick M. Wallace, Dhruve A. Ringwala, Jose Menendez, John Kouvetakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


We report a versatile chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to dope Ge films with Ga atoms in situ over a wide concentration range spanning from 3 × 1018 to 2.7 × 1020 cm-3. The method introduces a stable and volatile Ga hydride [D2GaN(CH3)2]2 that reacts readily with Ge4H10 to deliver Ga dopants controllably and systematically at complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible ultralow temperatures of ∼360 °C. Thick and monocrystalline layers (1.3 μm) are produced on Si substrates at growth rates approaching 50 nm/min. The doped crystals are fully epitaxial and devoid of misfit defects and Ga precipitates as evidenced by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. The Ga contents measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry and the active carrier concentrations determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry (as well as Hall effect measurements in several cases) are in close agreement, indicating near full activation. Photoluminescence spectra show a strong emission peak at 0.79 eV corresponding to the direct gap E0 transition, evidence of the indirect transition, and additional structures characteristic of p-type Ge. Electroluminescence and I-V curves measured from p(Ga)-i-n photodiodes are found to be at par with those from boron-based reference devices. These results are promising and demonstrate that a single-source CVD approach allows independent control of Ga doping level and junction depth, producing flat dopant profiles, high activation ratios, uniform distributions, and sharp interfaces. This method potentially represents a viable alternative to state-of-the-art boron-based p-type doping and activation of Ge-like materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)37198-37206
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number43
StatePublished - Oct 31 2018


  • CMOS compatible
  • Ga doping
  • dimethylamine-gallane
  • direct gap Ge
  • germanium
  • hyperdoped Ge
  • tetragermane

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)


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