Extractable hydrocarbons and kin recognition in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.)

Robert E. Page, Robert A. Metcalf, Robert L. Metcalf, Eric H. Erickson, Richard L. Lampman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

91 Scopus citations


Hydrocarbons of worker honeybees of known pedigree were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Variability in hydrocarbon extracts of individual workers is determined at least in part genetically. Correlations in hydrocarbon composition of extracts were highest among more closely related individuals. Individuals maintained in groups exchange hydrocarbons but still maintain enough self-produced compounds to retain genetically determined individual characteristics. These results demonstrate that extractable hydrocarbons of bees provide sufficiently reliable genetic information to function as labels for use during kin recognition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)745-756
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Chemical Ecology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 1991


  • Apidae
  • Apis mellifera
  • Honeybee
  • Hymenoptera
  • genetic relatedness
  • hydrocarbons
  • kin recognition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Biochemistry


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