Exploring pilgrimage value by ZMET: The mind of Christian pilgrims

Jaeho Yoo, Yunseon Choe, Gyehee Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Existing studies on pilgrimage have focused on rational perceptions in the motivation of pilgrims. Adopting Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET), a powerful photo-elicitation technique, this study delves deeper into both conscious and unconscious thoughts on pilgrimage values to uncover the metaphoric or non-literal expression of people with pilgrimage experiences among Korean practicing Protestants visiting Christian holy lands. Results of this study manifest four themes in pilgrimage values: spirituality, Biblical experience, emotional unity (koinonia), and novelty. The study presents meaningful implications for broadening the methodological horizons using ZMET to elicit pilgrimage values that lay dormant in the minds of pilgrims by detailed storytelling and meaningful metaphors and pictures in the pilgrimage context.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103466
JournalAnnals of Tourism Research
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • Christian pilgrims
  • Consensus map
  • Motivation
  • Pilgrimage
  • Value
  • ZMET (Zaltman metaphor elicitation technique)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Development
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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