Expanding the four resources model: Reading visual and multi-modal texts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

110 Scopus citations


Freebody and Luke proffered an expanded conceptualization of the resources readers utilize when reading and the roles readers adopt during the act of reading. The four resources model, and its associated four roles of the reader, expanded the definition of reading from a simple model of decoding printed texts to a model of constructing meaning and analysing texts in sociocultural contexts. This article continues the reconceptualization of the four resources model to four resources or social practices for reading-viewing multi-modal texts. Drawing on research and theories from visual culture, semiotics, critical media studies, grammars of visual design and multi-modal analysis, the expanded four resources or social practices are reader-viewer as (1) navigator, (2) interpreter, (3) designer and (4) interrogator. Each resource-practice is described in detail and the interpretive repertoires required of reader-viewers transacting with multi-modal texts from each perspective are considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)150-164
Number of pages15
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2012


  • Four resources model
  • Literacy
  • Multi-modality
  • Visual literacy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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