Examining the structural validity of the SSIS SEL brief scales—Teacher and student forms

Christopher J. Anthony, Kristy L. Brann, Stephen N. Elliott, Elizabeth J. Garis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Although interest in social-emotional learning (SEL) is growing, there are few efficient measures of SEL constructs, especially those of the popular CASEL Framework. To address this need, the SSIS SEL Brief Scales (SSIS SELb) were developed. Initial evidence for the SSIS SELb is promising, but evidence is needed for its structural validity. The purpose of this study was to provide such evidence. We used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate six plausible structures of the SSIS SELb-Teacher (n = 643) and SSIS SELb-Student (n = 530) forms with a large sample collected from two Midwestern private/parochial schools. Results indicated each of the models were defensible, but all models pointed to the conclusion that applied use should focus on the overall SEL Composite score. Findings provided support for the SSIS SELb Scales and indicated the need for future research better explicating the theoretical specifics of the CASEL Framework.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPsychology in the Schools
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • CASEL Competency Framework
  • social and emotional learning
  • SSIS SEL Brief Scales

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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