Examining the invariance of Holland's vocational interest model across Gender

Mary Z. Anderson, Terence J.G. Tracey, James Rounds

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


This study examines the structural invariance of Holland's (1973, 1985) vocational interest model across gender. Evidence of gender differences in the fit of Holland's model was sought by submitting 14 (7 male; 7 female) previously published Strong Interest Inventory (SII) General Occupational Themes (GOT) scale correlation matrices to multiple structural analytic techniques. Randomization tests of hypothesized order relations (Hubert Arabie, 1987) and single sample confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) indicated a moderate to strong correspondence between GOT data and Holland's circular order and circumplex models. Randomization tests of differences in model-data fit, and two-sample CFA indicated that these models are a no more or less accurate representation of the observed data for men than for women. Additional analyses aimed at identifying gender differences in the misfit of specific aspects of Holland's model also yielded no evidence of differential fit.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)349-364
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Vocational Behavior
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 1997
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Applied Psychology
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies


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