Examining School-Based Bullying Interventions Using Multilevel Discrete Time Hazard Modeling

Stephanie L. Ayers, M. Alex Wagaman, Jennifer Mullins Geiger, Monica Bermudez-Parsai, Eric Hedberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Although schools have been trying to address bulling by utilizing different approaches that stop or reduce the incidence of bullying, little remains known about what specific intervention strategies are most successful in reducing bullying in the school setting. Using the social-ecological framework, this paper examines school-based disciplinary interventions often used to deliver consequences to deter the reoccurrence of bullying and aggressive behaviors among school-aged children. Data for this study are drawn from the School-Wide Information System (SWIS) with the final analytic sample consisting of 1,221 students in grades K - 12 who received an office disciplinary referral for bullying during the first semester. Using Kaplan-Meier Failure Functions and Multi-level discrete time hazard models, determinants of the probability of a student receiving a second referral over time were examined. Of the seven interventions tested, only Parent-Teacher Conference (AOR = 0. 65, p<.01) and Loss of Privileges (AOR = 0. 71, p<.10) were significant in reducing the rate of the reoccurrence of bullying and aggressive behaviors. By using a social-ecological framework, schools can develop strategies that deter the reoccurrence of bullying by identifying key factors that enhance a sense of connection between the students' mesosystems as well as utilizing disciplinary strategies that take into consideration student's microsystem roles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)539-550
Number of pages12
JournalPrevention Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2012


  • Bullying
  • Interventions
  • Multi-level discrete time hazard models
  • Schools
  • Social-ecological framework

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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