Ethnic–Racial Socialization Practices Among Latino Immigrant Families: A Latent Profile Analysis

Cecilia Ayón, Giac-Thao Tran, Tanya Nieri

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    26 Scopus citations


    Objective: To examine profiles of Latinx immigrant parents' use of ethnic–racial socialization (ERS) strategies, as well as demographic, cultural, and sociopolitical factors associated with those profiles. Background: Few studies have examined ethnic–racial socialization strategies beyond cultural socialization among Latinx immigrant families. This study was designed to assess 6 ERS strategies: cultural socialization, promotion of mistrust, adapt (preparation for bias, avoidant coping), advocate (preparation for bias, active coping), promoting the value of diversity, and educating about nativity and documentation status. Method: Using a cross-sectional design and a sample of 300 immigrant parents (80% of whom were mothers; overall mean of 3 children). A new validated ERS measure was used along with measures of familismo, social support, and discrimination. Results: Profile analysis revealed 3 ERS profiles: Low ERS, Moderate ERS, and High ERS. Although parents in the sample used all the ERS strategies, they used adapt and promotion of mistrust with less frequency relative to other strategies across the 3 profiles. Four demographic variables and 2 cultural variables predicted profile membership. Conclusion: This study advances understanding of how Latinx immigrant parents socialize their children in the context of resurgent antiimmigrant sentiment and policy and illuminates the complexities in the ERS process. Implications: Practitioners should assess for strategies parents use to prepare their children for racial interactions and the support structures parents have in place. In addition, future interventions need to account for ERS strategies, which are a particularly critical aspect of parenting among immigrants given current attitudes toward immigration in the United States.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)246-259
    Number of pages14
    JournalFamily Relations
    Issue number2
    StatePublished - Apr 2019


    • Latinx immigrant families
    • cultural practices
    • ethnic–racial socialization

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Education
    • Developmental and Educational Psychology
    • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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