Environmental and demographic correlates of bicycling

James F. Sallis, Terry L. Conway, Lianne I. Dillon, Lawrence D. Frank, Marc Adams, Kelli L. Cain, Brian E. Saelens

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    103 Scopus citations


    Objective: The present study examined correlates of bicycle ownership and bicycling frequency, and projected increases in cycling if perceived safety from cars was improved. Methods: Participants were 1780 adults aged 20-65 recruited from the Seattle, Washington and Baltimore, Maryland regions (48% female; 25% ethnic/racial minority) and studied in 2002-2005. Bicycling outcomes were assessed by survey. Multivariable models were conducted to examine demographic and built environment correlates of bicycling outcomes. Results: About 71% of the sample owned bicycles, but 60% of those did not report cycling. Among bicycle owners, frequency of riding was greater among young, male, White, educated, and lean subgroups. Neighborhood walkability measures within 1. km were not consistently related to bicycling. For the whole sample, bicycling at least once per week was projected to increase from 9% to 39% if bicycling was safe from cars. Ethnic-racial minority groups and those in the least safe neighborhoods for bicycling had greater projected increases in cycling if safety from traffic was improved. Conclusion: Implementing measures to improve bicyclists' safety from cars would primarily benefit racial-ethnic groups who cycle less but have higher rates of chronic diseases, as well as those who currently feel least safe bicycling.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)456-460
    Number of pages5
    JournalPreventive Medicine
    Issue number5
    StatePublished - Nov 2013


    • Active transportation
    • Built environment
    • Health promotion
    • Non-communicable diseases
    • Physical activity
    • Policy

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Epidemiology
    • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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