Ensuring reliable operation of electricity grid by placement of facts devices for developing countries

Atif Naveed Khan, Kashif Imran, Muhammad Nadeem, Anamitra Pal, Abraiz Khattak, Kafait Ullah, Muhammad Waseem Younas, Muhammad Shahzad Younis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) are essential devices used for the efficient performance of modern power systems and many developing countries lack these devices. Due to the non-existence of these advanced technologies, the national grid remains weak and vulnerable to power stability issues that can jeopardize system stability. This study proposes novel research to solve issues of an evolving national grid through the installation of FACTS devices. FACTS devices play a crucial role in minimizing active power losses while managing reactive power flows to keep the voltages within their respective limits. Due to the high costs of FACTS, optimization must be done to discover optimal locations as well as ratings of these devices. However, due to the nonlinearity, it is a challenging task to find the optimal locations and appropriate sizes of these devices. Shunt VARs Compensators (SVCs) and Thyristor-Controlled Series Compensators (TCSCs) are the two FACTS devices considered for the study. Optimal locations for SVCs and TCSCs are determined by Voltage Collapse Proximity Index (VCPI) and Line Stability Index (Lmn), respectively. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is employed to find the ideal rating for FACTS devices to minimize the system operating cost (cost due to active power loss and capital cost of FACTS devices). This technique is applied to IEEE (14 and 30) bus systems. Moreover, reliable operation of the electricity grid through the placement of FACTS for developing countries has also been analysed; Pakistan being a developing country has been selected as a case study. The planning problem has been solved for the present as well as for the forecasted power system. Consequently, in the current national network, 6.21% and 6.71% reduction in active and reactive power losses have been observed, respectively. Moreover, voltage profiles have been improved significantly. A detailed financial analysis covering the calculation of Operation Cost (OC) of the national grid before and after the placement of FACTS devices is carried out.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2283
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 2 2021


  • Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS)
  • Line stability index (L)
  • Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
  • Voltage Collapse Proximity Index (VCPI)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Fuel Technology
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Control and Optimization
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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