Energy storage controller synthesis for power systems with temporal logic specifications

Zhe Xu, Agung Julius, Joe H. Chow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


We present an energy storage controller synthesis method for power systems with respect to metric temporal logic (MTL) specifications. The power systems with both constant impedance loads and constant power loads are modeled as a set of differential-algebraic equations. After a fault is cleared, with uncertainties in the fault clearing time, the generator machine angles and rotor speed deviations will enter a set of postfault initial states. We use the robust neighborhood approach to cover this set using the initial robust neighborhoods of finitely many simulated postfault trajectories. These simulated postfault trajectories meet the frequency regulation requirements specified in MTL as they are driven by the optimal control input signals obtained through a functional gradient descent approach. In this way, all the possible postfault trajectories with the given uncertainties in the fault clearing time are guaranteed to satisfy the MTL specification. Furthermore, we learn a piecewise linear control law from the data of the simulated trajectories to generate a feedback controller.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8078222
Pages (from-to)748-759
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Systems Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Controller synthesis
  • Differential-algebraic equations
  • Energy storage systems (ESSs)
  • Temporal logic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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