Energy Management for Battery-Powered Embedded Systems

Daler Rakhmatov, Sarma Vrudhula

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

225 Scopus citations


Portable embedded computing systems require energy autonomy. This is achieved by batteries serving as a dedicated energy source. The requirement of portability places severe restrictions on size and weight, which in turn limits the amount of energy that is continuously available to maintain system operability. For these reasons, efficient energy utilization has become one of the key challenges to the designer of battery-powered embedded computing systems. In this paper, we first present a novel analytical battery model, which can be used for the battery lifetime estimation. The high quality of the proposed model is demonstrated with measurements and simulations. Using this battery model, we introduce a new “battery-aware” cost function, which will be used for optimizing the lifetime of the battery. This cost function generalizes the traditional minimization metric, namely the energy consumption of the system. We formulate the problem of battery-aware task scheduling on a single processor with multiple voltages. Then, we prove several important mathematical properties of the cost function. Based on these properties, we propose several algorithms for task ordering and voltage assignment, including optimal idle period insertion to exercise charge recovery. This paper presents the first effort toward a formal treatment of battery-aware task scheduling and voltage scaling, based on an accurate analytical model of the battery behavior.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)277-324
Number of pages48
JournalACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 1 2003


  • Algorithms
  • Battery
  • Performance
  • low-power design
  • modeling
  • scheduling
  • voltage scaling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Hardware and Architecture


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