Energy and exergy analyses of different aluminum reduction technologies

Mazin Obaidat, Ahmed Al-Ghandoor, Patrick Phelan, Jesus Villalobos, Ammar Alkhalidi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


This paper examines and compares different aluminum reduction technologies found in the literature as alternatives to the current Hall-Heroult technology. The main inefficiencies in the current Hall-Heroult technology were identified and the advantages of the different proposed technologies over the Hall-Heroult technology were determined. The comparison between the different technologies, namely Hall-Heroult, wetted drained cathode, inert anode, and carbothermic, was based on energy and material requirements, and environmental impact. In order to combine all of the evaluation criteria into one numerical value, the exergy concept was utilized as a decision tool. The results emphasize that in order to analyze any conversion system, the exergy of energy, material, environmental impact, and their associated chain production should be taken into consideration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1216
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 17 2018


  • Aluminum
  • Carbothermic
  • Exergy
  • Hall-Heroult
  • Inert anode
  • Wetted drained cathode

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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