Elemental mapping with elastically scattered electrons

S. J. Pennycook, S. D. Berger, R. J. Culbertson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations


We describe a technique for efficient, quantitative, standardless elemental mapping using a high‐angle annular detector in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) to collect elastically scattered electrons. With a single crystal specimen, contrast due to thickness variations, diffraction, and channelling effects can be avoided, so that the resulting image contrast quantitatively reflects variations in impurity concentration. We compare a number of simple analytical approximations to the elastic scattering cross sections and show that a standardless analysis is possible over a wide range of atomic number and inner detector angle to an absolute accuracy of better than 20%. 1986 Blackwell Science Ltd

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)229-249
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Microscopy
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 1986
Externally publishedYes


  • STEM
  • Z‐contrast
  • analytical electron microscopy
  • annular detector
  • elastic scattering
  • elemental mapping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Histology


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