Electron-beam-induced reduction of Mn4+ in manganese oxides as revealed by parallel EELS

Laurence A.J. Garvie, Alan J. Craven

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50 Scopus citations


Chemical reduction of Mn4+ in the mineral asbolan was examined using parallel electron energy-loss spectroscopy (PEELS). Changes on the oxidation state of the manganese were monitored by recording the electron energy-loss near-edge structure (ELNES) for the Mn M2,3- and L2,3-edges. The edges in the undamaged material were consistent with Mn4+. Electron beam irradiation of the mineral caused the ionisation edges to change in shape and energy consistent with the decrease in the proportion of the Mn4+ and the increase in the proportions of Mn3+ and Mn2+. The final edge is very similar in energy and shape to that of Mn2+ in rhodochrosite (MnCO3) and manganosite (MnO) and the differences in shape can be accounted for by the presence of a small amount of residual Mn3+.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)83-92
Number of pages10
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 1994
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation


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