Efficient defect detection with sign information of Walsh Hadamard transform

Qiang Zhang, Peter Van Beek, Chang Yuan, Xinyu Xu, Hae Jong Seo, Baoxin Li

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

4 Scopus citations


We propose a method for defect detection based on taking the sign information of Walsh Hadamard Transform (WHT) coefficients. The core of the proposed algorithm involves only three steps that can all be implemented very efficiently: applying the forward WHT, taking the sign of the transform coefficients, and taking an inverse WHT using only the sign information. Our implementation takes only 7 milliseconds for a 512 × 512 image on a PC platform. As a result, the proposed method is more efficient than the PHase Only Transform (PHOT) method and other methods in literature. In addition, the proposed approach is capable of detecting defects of varying shapes, by combining the 2-dimensional WHT and 1-dimensional WHT; and can detect defects in images with strong object boundaries by utilizing a reference image. The proposed algorithm is robust over different background image patterns and varying illumination conditions. We evaluated the proposed method both visually and quantitatively and obtained good results on images from various defect detection applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE-IS and T Electronic Imaging - Image Processing
Subtitle of host publicationMachine Vision Applications VI
StatePublished - 2013
EventImage Processing: Machine Vision Applications VI - Burlingame, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 5 2013Feb 6 2013

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X


OtherImage Processing: Machine Vision Applications VI
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityBurlingame, CA


  • Defect detection
  • Image signature
  • PHase only transform
  • Sign information
  • Walsh Hadamard transform

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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