Effects of within-group and between-groups variation in leadership

Ralph Katerberg, Peter W. Hom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


Correlated the satisfaction and role perceptions of 672 men from 31 units of the US Army National Guard with the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) Consideration and Initiating Structure scale scores that described their 1st sergeants and unit commanders. Between-units leadership effects were examined by correlating the averaged LBDQ scores in each unit, which were assigned to each respondent in that unit, with the individual-level criteria. Within-unit leadership effects were examined through a hierarchical regression analysis in which unit means were entered in the 1st step. Although the effects of within-group variation in leader behavior were stronger than between-groups variations, both variations significantly predicted subordinate reactions. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)218-223
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Applied Psychology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 1981
Externally publishedYes


  • within- & between-group variations in satisfaction & role perceptions of leadership, differential relationships of leaders to each subordinate, Army National Guardsmen

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


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