Effects of Hydration Educational Intervention in High School Football Players

Whitley C. Atkins, Brendon P. McDermott, Koji Kanemura, J. D. Adams, Stavros A. Kavouras

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Atkins, WC, McDermott, BP, Kanemura, K, Adams, JD, and Kavouras, S. Effects of Hydration Educational Intervention in High School Football Players. J Strength Cond Res 35(2): 385-390, 2021 - The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a one-time educational intervention (EI) on hydration behaviors, status, and knowledge. In a pre-test, post-test quasi-experimental design, 41 in-season American high school football players (16 ± 1 years) voluntarily participated. Teams were assigned to EI or no intervention (NI) groups. Educational intervention included a 5-minute presentation on hydration importance, self-assessment, urine-color charts, water bottles, and hydration status feedback. Baseline data included 24-hour fluid intake logs, urinalysis, and questionnaires. Data collection was repeated 3 and 24-days post-EI. Subjects provided urine samples and recorded fluid intake. Twenty-four hour mean fluid consumed (FC) and water consumed (WC) were calculated. Questionnaires quantified hydration knowledge. Significance was set a priori at p ≤ 0.05. Urine specific gravity was not significantly different at baseline (EI: 1.026 ± 0.006; NI: 1.023 ± 0.009; p = 0.118, confidence interval [CI] 95% [-0.001 to 008]), improved 3-days post-EI (EI: 1.017 ± 0.010; NI: 1.026 ± 0.007; p = 0.004, CI 95% [-0.015 to -0.003]), and was not different 24-days post-EI (EI: 1.021 ± 0.009; NI: 1.025 ± 0.007; p = 0.213, CI 95% [-0.008 to 002]) between groups. Three days post-EI, 24-hour WC increased significantly in the EI (EI: 888 ± 713 ml; t(19) = -5.685, p < 0.001, CI 95%: [-1,208.9 to -560.0]) but not NI (119 ± 583 ml; t(20) = -0.915, CI 95%: [-392.0 to 153.5]) and EI increased FC by 19%, whereas NI showed a 6% FC decrease. There were no significant group (F(1,19) = 0.025, p = 0.876, ηp2 = 0.001) or interaction effects for hydration knowledge (F(2,38) = 0.677, p = 0.514, ηp2 = 0.034). Educational intervention improved hydration status and behaviors despite no change in knowledge. Hydration education should be implemented and reinforced by team personnel as benefits to an EI are reduced at 24-days post-intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)385-390
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2021


  • dehydration
  • fluid-intake logs
  • hypohydration
  • urine specific gravity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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