Effect of Water Vapor During Secondary Cooling on Hot Shortness in Fe-Cu-Ni-Sn-Si Alloys

Erica Sampson, Seetharaman Sridhar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Residual Cu in recycled steel scrap can cause hot shortness when the iron matrix is oxidized. Hot shortness can occur directly after the solid steel is formed from continuous casting as the steel undergoes a cooling process known as secondary cooling where water is first sprayed on the surface to promote cooling. This is followed by a radiant cooling stage where the steel is cooled in air to room temperature. This investigation examines the roles of water vapor, Si content, temperature, and the presence of Sn in a Fe-0.2 wt pct Cu-0.05 wt pct Ni alloy on oxidation, separated Cu and Cu induced-hot shortness during simulations of the secondary cooling process. The secondary cooling from 1473 K (1200 °C) resulted in a slight increase in liquid quantity and grain boundary penetration as compared to the isothermal heating cycles at 1423 K (1150 °C) due to the higher temperatures experienced in the non-isothermal cycle. The addition of water vapor increased the sample oxidation as compared to samples processed in dry atmospheres due to increased scale adherence, scale plasticity, and inward transport of oxygen. The increase in weight gain of the wet atmosphere increased the liquid formation at the interface in the non-Si containing alloys. The secondary cooling cycle with water vapor and the effect of Sn lead to the formation of many small pools of Cu-rich liquid embedded within the surface of the metal due to the Sn allowing for increased grain boundary decohesion and the water vapor allowing for oxidation within liquid-penetrated grain boundaries. The presence of Si increased the amount of occlusion of Cu and Fe, significantly decreasing the quantity of liquid at the interface and the amount of grain boundary penetration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1769-1781
Number of pages13
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2014
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of Water Vapor During Secondary Cooling on Hot Shortness in Fe-Cu-Ni-Sn-Si Alloys'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this