The avirulent Salmonella typhimurium X3985 was used to vaccinate white leghorn chickens at 16 and 18 weeks of age, and the effect of maternal antibody on Salmonella colonization of progeny of vaccinated hens was assessed with S. typhimurium F98 or X3985. Progeny of hens that had been vaccinated at 1 and 3 or 2 and 4 weeks of age with X3985 were used to determine the effect of maternal immunity on vaccine efficacy. Vaccination of hens induced lung-lasting Salmonella-specific antibodies which were transferred into eggs and were detected as immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the egg yolk. Maternal antibody was detected in the progeny of vaccinated birds as IgG and IgA in serum and intestinal fluid, respectively. The titer of maternally transmitted IgG or IgA was highest in the first week of life of the progeny and declined with age. Maternal antibodies prevented colonization of the chicks by S. typhimurium X3985 and reduced colonization by S. typhimurium F98. Overall, chicks from vaccinated hens had significantly higher antibody responses than did the progeny of nonvaccinated hens after oral infection with Salmonella strains. Maternal antibody reduced the efficacy of vaccination of progeny with X3985 at 1 and 3 weeks of age. But vaccination at 2 and 4 weeks of age induced excellent protection against challenge with S. typhimurium F98 or S. enteritidis 27A PT 8 in birds from vaccinated hens and in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Vaccination of chickens at 2 and 4 weeks of age has been shown to protect the birds against challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serotypes. A combination of vaccination of adult animals and use of the progeny of vaccinated birds will enhance effective control of Salmonella infections in the poultry industry. This will complement the present control of Salmonella- associated food poisoning caused by Salmonella enteritidis in eggs because the avirulent S. typhimurium vaccine strain X3985 induced excellent protection against S. enteritidis in chickens.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases