Dynamics of vortices in superconductors observed by electron waves

A. Tonomura, P. W. Hawkes, J. C.H. Spence

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Although, in electron microscopy, an object is usually observed by using the intensity of an electron beam transmitted through it, the phase distribution of the electron beam also provides different information about the object. It has been difficult, however, to obtain the phase information because of the low coherence of an electron beam. Recent development of a 'coherent' field emission electron beam and related techniques, such as electron holography, has provided a way to observe microscopic objects and fields by precisely measuring the phase information of an electron beam. It has, for example, become possible to observe the dynamics of individual vortices in superconducting thin films.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)311-320
Number of pages10
JournalScanning Microscopy
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • Aharonov-Bohm effect
  • Lorentz microscopy
  • Vortex
  • electron holography
  • field- emission
  • magnetic domain structure
  • superconductor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation


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