Do People recognize the four Cs? Examining layperson conceptions of creativity

James C. Kaufman, Ronald A. Beghetto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


Researchers examine implicit beliefs about creativity to understand what laypeople think. Past work has looked at cultural differences, characteristics associated with creativity, and the positive or negative valence that people feel toward creativity. In this study, we focused on the Four C Model of Creativity (Beghetto & Kaufman, 2007; Kaufman & Beghetto, 2009) to discover if laypeople perceive nuances in different levels of accomplishment. We found that although Pro-c and little-c merged into one factor, Big-C, mini-c, and Not-c (not creative) were distinguishable. Personality (particularly agreeableness and openness) predicted how participants rated different levels of creativity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)229-236
Number of pages8
JournalPsychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Beliefs
  • Creativity
  • Four C Model of Creativity
  • Implicit theories
  • Personality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Visual Arts and Performing Arts
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Applied Psychology


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