Direct-Write Printing Copper-Nickel (Cu/Ni) Alloy with Controlled Composition from a Single Electrolyte Using Co-Electrodeposition

Chao Wang, Md Emran Hossain Bhuiyan, Salvador Moreno, Majid Minary-Jolandan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Although various processes for metal printing at the micro- and mesoscale have been demonstrated, printing functional devices such as thermocouples, thermopiles, and heat flux sensors that function based on interfaces between an alloy and another alloy/metal demands processes for printing alloys. Furthermore, a high-quality and crystalline alloy is required for acceptable function of these devices. This article reports for the first time co-electrodeposition-based printing of single-phase solid solution nanocrystalline copper/nickel (Cu/Ni) alloy with various controllable compositions (Cu100Ni0 to Cu19Ni81) from a single electrolyte. The printed alloy is nanocrystalline (<35 nm), continuous, and dense with no apparent porosity, with remarkable mechanical and magnetic properties, without any postprocessing annealing such as heat treatment. In addition, a functional thermocouple fabricated using this process is demonstrated. Such a process can not only be used for fabrication of functional devices, it may also facilitate fundamental studies on alloys by printing a continuous library of alloy composition for material characterization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18683-18691
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number16
StatePublished - Apr 22 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • alloy printing
  • co-electrodeposition
  • confined electrodeposition
  • copper/nickel alloy
  • direct-write printing
  • magnetic properties
  • mechanical properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science


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