Dietary Patterns with Healthy and Unhealthy Traits Among Overweight/Obese Hispanic Women with or at High Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

Mayra Arias-Gastélum, Nangel M. Lindberg, Michael C. Leo, Meg Bruening, Corrie M. Whisner, Cheryl Der Ananian, Steven P. Hooker, Erin S. LeBlanc, Victor J. Stevens, Elizabeth Shuster, Richard T. Meenan, Sara Gille, Katherine A. Vaughn, Ann Turner, Sonia Vega-López

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Hispanic women are at high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), with obesity and unhealthy eating being important contributing factors. A cross-sectional design was used in this study to identify dietary patterns and their associations with diabetes risk factors. Participants completed a culturally adapted Food Frequency Questionnaire capturing intake over the prior 3 months. Overweight/obese Hispanic women (n = 191) with or at risk for T2D were recruited from a community clinic into a weight loss intervention. Only baseline data was used for this analysis. Dietary patterns and their association with diabetes risk factors (age, body mass index, abdominal obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose [FBG], and hemoglobin A1c). An exploratory factor analysis of dietary data adjusted for energy intake was used to identify eating patterns, and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) to assess the association of the eating patterns with the diabetes risk factors. Six meaningful patterns with healthful and unhealthful traits emerged: (1) sugar and fat-laden, (2) plant foods and fish, (3) soups and starchy dishes, (4) meats and snacks, (5) beans and grains, and (6) eggs and dairy. Scores for the “sugar and fat-laden” and “meats and snacks” patterns were negatively associated with age (r = − 0.230, p = 0.001 and r = − 0.298, p < 0.001, respectively). Scores for “plant foods and fish” were positively associated with FBG (r = 0.152, p = 0.037). Being younger may be an important risk factor for a diet rich in sugar and fat; this highlights the need to assess dietary patterns among younger Hispanic women to identify traits potentially detrimental for their health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)293-303
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2021


  • Dietary patterns
  • Eating patterns
  • Exploratory factor analysis
  • Hispanic women
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Anthropology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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