Determination of Control Requirements to Impose on CIG for Ensuring Frequency Stability of Low Inertia Power Systems

Benjamin Vega, Claudia Rahmann, Ricardo Alvarez, Vijay Vittal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Power systems around the globe are undergoing a transformation characterized by a massive deployment of converter-interfaced generation (CIG) to effectively combat climate change. However, achieving a seamless transition from current power systems dominated by synchronous generators (SGs) to future ones with high levels of CIG requires overcoming several technical challenges. From a frequency stability perspective, reduced system inertia increases the frequency nadir after a loss of generation thereby endangering frequency stability. In this context, this paper proposes a novel methodology for determining control requirements to impose on CIG as their penetration in the network increases. Results of a case study based on the Chilean grid projected for the year 2046 show that, if only grid-following converters without frequency control capability are deployed, a maximum CIG penetration level of 75% can be achieved without threatening frequency stability. The Chilean system can reach a 99% CIG penetration, provided that the remaining CIGs are deployed in grid-following with frequency support capability. Finally, we show that if the last SG is replaced with a grid-forming converter, the system can still sustain frequency stability and exhibits a good dynamic performance. These results demonstrate that, at least from a frequency stability viewpoint, achieving a 100% based CIG system is technically possible. The proposed methodology can be used by energy regulators to define the control requirements necessary to impose on CIG for achieving renewable energy targets in a secure way. Although the obtained results are particular for the Chilean system, the proposed methodology can be applied to any power system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)44891-44908
Number of pages18
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2022


  • CIG
  • PLL
  • frequency stability
  • grid-following converter
  • grid-forming converter
  • low-inertia systems
  • renewable energy resources

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Determination of Control Requirements to Impose on CIG for Ensuring Frequency Stability of Low Inertia Power Systems'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this